Value at the end of the sanitation value-chain


Funding Agency:

University of Leeds, United Kingdom


Implementing Partners:

  • University of Leeds, United Kingdom
  • International Water Management Institute (IWMI; Sri Lanka)
  • Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET)  (Bangladesh)
  • NGO Form for Public Health (Bangladesh)


Total Budget:

Euro 62,150



1½ years (May 2013 – February 2015)


Overall Objective:

Business models will be developed and adopted for a low cost, safe method for the collection and processing of faecal sludge (FS) from pit latrines, that can be operated by local entrepreneurs and results in the production of a safe, high quality fertilizer that is desirable to farmers.


Specific Objectives:

  • Develop business models for conversion of faecal sludge into compost in such a way that the process and products are conducive to the needs of the various stakeholders and which will therefore be adopted and sustained because of demand and generation of revenue.
  • Characterize the sanitation value chain including the demand, supply and institutional arrangements for the production and use of faecal fertilizer, with a view to improving sanitation and supporting agricultural production.
  • Optimize the process of emptying pit latrines so that it is more efficient and safe for the operator.
  • Optimize the composting process including the drying and co-composting processes, so as to create a safe product that meets farmer/crop requirements in terms of nutrients and organic matter content.
  • To achieve widespread adoption of business models and growth in sales.



  • Protocol and recommendations for safe emptying of the sludge generated in single and double pit latrines.
  • Protocol and recommendations for production of faecal-based fertilizer.
  • Business model(s) that can be implemented by local entrepreneurs, with cost-benefit analysis, demand characterization and willingness to pay.
  • Marketing materials so that entrepreneurs in other locations become aware of the business potential around the emptying of pit latrines and compost sales.


Intervention Areas:

4 (Four) Upazilas of 4 Districts in Bangladesh (Upazila: Fultola, District: Khulna; Upazila: Bhaluka, District: Mymensingh; Upazila: Senbagh, District: Noakhali; and Upazila: Chagolnaiya, District: Feni)